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Why do people think 41 is too old to exercise? It’s a perfect time to start
The truth is that whatever your age, exercise can be beneficial
– and just think about the post-workout high


The news that – according to a recent survey of 2,000 people in the US – people feel they are too old to start exercising at 41 would raise a few eyebrows in Fauja Singh’s house. He took up running at 84, and ran his first marathon aged 89. He went on to run a further seven marathons, including one at age 100 So if you have just turned 41 and think you’re too old, think again.

Rangan Chatterjee, a GP and author of Feel Better in 5, says exercising in our 40s is vital. “Exercise will help no matter what age you are,” he says. “But once we’re over 30 we start to lose muscle mass each year – and lean muscle mass is one of the main predictors of longevity. So exercise, especially strength training, becomes arguably more important than ever.”
The main reason people gave for not exercising after turning 41 was a lack of time. I know the feeling. I’m 45, I have a job and three children, but I run regularly – including 10 ultramarathons in the past three years. The best time for me to fit in my runs is early in the morning. But it’s not easy when the alarm goes at 6am on a winter’s day.

What you need to put front and centre in your mind at that moment is the post-exercise buzz. Remember that? Sitting down to a big breakfast, glowing with energy after your workout, as the rest of the world is still emerging from sleep.

If you can’t get yourself moving, try to find a running buddy or join a group. From running to yoga to a local football team, it’s so much easier to get out there if you know someone is waiting for you.

Humans are creatures of habit, so making exercise part of your routine – however you can fit it in – also makes it easier, as then you will do it without thinking. You won’t regret it. Exercise has been proven in countless studies to improve mood, alertness, memory and happiness, as well as physical wellbeing. Your age – whether 21, 41 or 91 – has little to do with it.

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Survey: The Average Person Will
Watch More Than 78,000 Hours Of TV


New research reveals people watch about 3.5 hours of television each day, on average.
Six in ten adults admit they would “be lost” without their TV set!
LONDON — Television has become such a common part of all of our lives that most don’t even think about just how much time they spend staring at their TV screen. Of course, all of those hours are undoubtedly adding up, and a recent survey of 2,000 British adults finds that the average TV viewer will watch an astounding 78,705 hours of programming (movies, sports, news, etc) in their lifetime. That’s a whole lot of screen time that may have been better spent on more productive endeavors.

On a day-to-day basis, the average adult watches TV for three-and-a-half hours, amounting to 1,248 hours each year.

The survey, commissioned by LG Electronics, broke down those numbers even further and concluded that the average adult these days will watch 3,639 movies at home, and 31,507 episodes of TV during their lifespan. As far as different programs, the average person will watch 11,278 different TV series as well.

78,000 Hours Of TV




You Are What You Watch? The Social Effects of TV
There’s new evidence that viewing habits can affect
your thinking, political preferences, even cognitive ability.


By Jonathan Rothwell


Other than sleeping and working, Americans are more likely to watch television than engage in any other activity.

A wave of new social science research shows that the quality of shows can influence us in important ways, shaping our thinking and political preferences, even affecting our cognitive ability.

In this so-called golden age of television, some critics have pointed out that the best of the form is equivalent to the most enriching novels. And high-quality programming for children can be educational. But the latest evidence also suggests there can be negative consequences to our abundant watching, particularly when the shows are mostly entertainment.

The harm seems to come not so much from the content itself but from the fact that it replaces more enlightening ways of spending time.


You Are What You Watch? The Social Effects of TV






Laugter



The benefits of laughter
It’s true: laughter is strong medicine. It draws people together in ways that trigger healthy physical and emotional changes in the body. Laughter strengthens your immune system, boosts mood, diminishes pain, and protects you from the damaging effects of stress. Nothing works faster or more dependably to bring your mind and body back into balance than a good laugh. Humor lightens your burdens, inspires hope, connects you to others, and keeps you grounded, focused, and alert. It also helps you release anger and forgive sooner.

With so much power to heal and renew, the ability to laugh easily and frequently is a tremendous resource for surmounting problems, enhancing your relationships, and supporting both physical and emotional health. Best of all, this priceless medicine is fun, free, and easy to use.

As children, we used to laugh hundreds of times a day, but as adults, life tends to be more serious and laughter more infrequent. But by seeking out more opportunities for humor and laughter, you can improve your emotional health, strengthen your relationships, find greater happiness—and even add years to your life.


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Stress relief from laughter? It’s no joke


When it comes to relieving stress, more giggles and guffaws are just what the doctor ordered. Here’s why.

By Mayo Clinic Staff
Whether you’re guffawing at a sitcom on TV or quietly giggling at a newspaper cartoon, laughing does you good. Laughter is a great form of stress relief, and that’s no joke.

Stress relief from laughter
A good sense of humor can’t cure all ailments, but data is mounting about the positive things laughter can do.

Short-term benefits
A good laugh has great short-term effects. When you start to laugh, it doesn’t just lighten your load mentally, it actually induces physical changes in your body. Laughter can:

Stimulate many organs. Laughter enhances your intake of oxygen-rich air, stimulates your heart, lungs and muscles, and increases the endorphins that are released by your brain.
Activate and relieve your stress response. A rollicking laugh fires up and then cools down your stress response, and it can increase and then decrease your heart rate and blood pressure. The result? A good, relaxed feeling.
Soothe tension. Laughter can also stimulate circulation and aid muscle relaxation, both of which can help reduce some of the physical symptoms of stress.
Long-term effects
Laughter isn’t just a quick pick-me-up, though. It’s also good for you over the long term. Laughter may:

Improve your immune system. Negative thoughts manifest into chemical reactions that can affect your body by bringing more stress into your system and decreasing your immunity. By contrast, positive thoughts can actually release neuropeptides that help fight stress and potentially more-serious illnesses.
Relieve pain. Laughter may ease pain by causing the body to produce its own natural painkillers.
Increase personal satisfaction. Laughter can also make it easier to cope with difficult situations. It also helps you connect with other people.
Improve your mood. Many people experience depression, sometimes due to chronic illnesses. Laughter can help lessen your depression and anxiety and may make you feel happier.
Improve your sense of humor
Are you afraid you have an underdeveloped — or nonexistent — sense of humor? No problem. Humor can be learned. In fact, developing or refining your sense of humor may be easier than you think.

Put humor on your horizon. Find a few simple items, such as photos, greeting cards or comic strips, that make you chuckle. Then hang them up at home or in your office. Keep funny movies, books, magazines or comedy videos on hand for when you need an added humor boost. Look online at joke websites. Go to a comedy club.
Laugh and the world laughs with you. Find a way to laugh about your own situations and watch your stress begin to fade away. Even if it feels forced at first, practice laughing. It does your body good.

Consider trying laughter yoga. In laughter yoga, people practice laughter as a group. Laughter is forced at first, but it can soon turn into spontaneous laughter.

Share a laugh. Make it a habit to spend time with friends who make you laugh. And then return the favor by sharing funny stories or jokes with those around you.
Knock, knock. Browse through your local bookstore or library’s selection of joke books and add a few jokes to your list that you can share with friends.
Know what isn’t funny. Don’t laugh at the expense of others. Some forms of humor aren’t appropriate. Use your best judgment to discern a good joke from a bad or hurtful one.
Laughter is the best medicine
Go ahead and give it a try. Turn the corners of your mouth up into a smile and then give a laugh, even if it feels a little forced. Once you’ve had your chuckle, take stock of how you’re feeling. Are your muscles a little less tense? Do you feel more relaxed or buoyant? That’s the natural wonder of laughing at work.


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How to make the most of dried beans
Fresher beans, softer water and leaving out the straining are some of the ways that will give your beans deeper flavour and that perfect texture

How do I make dried beans and chickpeas taste as nice as the expensive ones you get in fancy jars. Does it depend on the type of bean, or is there a secret trick?
Danny, Littlehampton, West Sussex

“Pulses are probably the one thing I can talk about with any authority, and even that is dubious,” says Itamar Srulovich of Honey & Co and Honey & Smoke in central London. And the key to getting the best out of them, he says, is to use beans that have been picked and dried recently, rather than ones that have sat around for years. “From the latest harvest, ideally, though good luck with that in the UK. It took Sarit [Packer, his partner] and me three years to find a chickpea supply we were happy with.”

Fortunately, things are changing on that front thanks to the likes of Hodmedod in Suffolk, which since its launch in 2012 has led a resurgence in home-grown pulses and now sells everything from British fava beans and lentils to quinoa and carlin peas. “Pulses at the corner shop or supermarket can be really, really old,” says Josiah Meldrum, one of the firm’s co-founders, “with a shelf life of up to five years. The older they are, the more the starches turn resistant, so you end up with hard and mealy beans.”


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Australian lifestyle
My successful only son is miserable to me. Am I wrong to feel unappreciated?

Being a parent plunges you into a sort of unrequited love, writes Eleanor Gordon-Smith, but that doesn’t mean you’re in the wrong


My only son is very successful. He owns five properties, is self-employed, and due to inherit from a family member soon. He buys top-brand watches and cars. But l feel he is quite miserable towards me, his hard-working mum. I’ve never had big bunch flowers from him or wee present off the cuff. Am l wrong? It upsets me to not be appreciated.

I heard a story not too long ago about a father talking to his daughter. She was on the edge of the decision about whether she would have children and he was talking to her about what he’d learned when he became a dad. He told her that if he had his time again he wasn’t sure he’d have children. He wasn’t being unkind; it wasn’t because he didn’t adore her. It was because he hadn’t understood the way that being a parent plunges you permanently into unrequited love. Your whole life and heart become structured around someone who won’t return your calls; you would take a bullet for someone who forgets your birthday.

So no, you’re not wrong. He’s wrong. He’s wrong to take you for granted, though for him, you are the only thing that has ever been totally granted. You are the constant from his first day on Earth. The cruel twist is the better a parent you are, the more constantly and immovably you show up and provide love and reassurance, the easier it is for him to see your constancy as a metaphysical fact about the universe instead of the product of your effort and love. And who thinks to be grateful for the things we see as natural order?

I hate my husband’s centre part. How do I make the best of a stupid situation?
Read more
You mustn’t take it to heart. It’s not a referendum on you or your value as a parent. It’s just the betrayal all of us ultimately level at our parents, which is to leave them behind. It’s a betrayal we have to move through on the way to adulthood, but if our parents have been good to us we could at least buy some flowers on the way out.

I wonder whether there are people in his life who could quietly have a word. You could be explicit with his sibling or spouse or father – or even with him. The “dear old mum” card is a tough one to resist. In the meantime, or if he doesn’t shape up, perhaps there’s some comfort in knowing that your hurt is the proof that you’re still a loving and hopeful person. Being able to be wounded by another person is the sign that we’re still vulnerable and open to them, that we’re living a life that’s awake and soft and full of hope. Not all those hopes get repaid, but I hope for your sake this one does. And Mum, I’ll call you soon.


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How to make a proper old-school chocolate mousse
Use decent chocolate, keep it simple, and if in doubt, consult Elizabeth David …


I’ve tried chocolate mousse recipes from various chefs with all sorts of ingredients and methods, but none of them ever comes out quite right. Do you have any pointers, or maybe a failsafe recipe?
Katie, Kildare, Ireland

Neil Borthwick, chef at The French House, caused a bit of a stir when he put chocolate mousse on his menu when the Soho institution reopened this time last year: it was the first time many of the capital’s diners had seen this old bistro classic in decades.

Borthwick’s take – an immaculate quenelle of fluffy dark chocolatiness – is more cheffy than the 60s dinner party favourite, but he’s not messed with the idea a whole lot. Like all right-thinking people, he has no time for such gimmickry as incorporating olive oil, berries or, God forbid, basil; Google the latter, and you enter an alarming parallel universe inhabited by 44m culinary crackpots, so don’t say I didn’t warn you. Rather, he’s tweaked the traditional recipe, originally out of an act of kindness. “Mine doesn’t use raw egg yolk,” he explains, “for the simple reason that years ago, when I was working at a Scottish country house hotel, a pregnant customer once moaned that she couldn’t have the mousse, so we came up with one she could eat. The fact that it also does away with health and safety concerns about uncooked egg is just a bonus.”

Jeremy Lee’s alluring chocolate mousse recipe
Read more
Borthwick makes Italian meringue – essentially, whipped, soft-peak egg whites into which you whisk 115C sugar syrup to stiff peaks (the hot syrup cooks the whites, so there’s no need for baking) – then folds in melted chocolate and lightly whipped cream, before popping it in the fridge to set. “Always use decent chocolate, though,” he warns. “I use a 72% one from Pump Street, but there are loads out there these days. Cheap brands often have too much cocoa butter, which sets so hard you end up with a chocolate brick. And don’t add it until the whites are very stiff, or you’ll be having chocolate soup for pudding.” (Incidentally, food scientist Harold McGee, in his book Keys To Good Cooking, advises resting the mousse for up to an hour before refrigerating it, so the cocoa fat sets “in crystals that will melt more cleanly and refreshingly in the mouth”.)


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Kim-Joy’s recipe for apple crumble desert with camels and cacti.

A classic pudding with a twist – and comforting to the core

Yes, you read that correctly: this is a desert, not a dessert.
If you love apples, this will definitely prickle your fancy.

Serves: 4-6

For the apple crumble layer:
450g apples, peeled and roughly chopped
½ tsp ground cinnamon
¼ tsp ground cardamon
50g light brown sugar

For the crumble layer:
110g salted butter (room temp, cubed)
150g plain flour
100g caster sugar
20g flaked almonds

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Optional:
For the biscuits (makes extra)
200g salted butter
85g caster sugar
270g plain flour

For the royal icing:
100g icing sugar
20g egg white
Gel food dye

Preheat the oven to 200C (180C fan)/400F/gas mark 6. Mix the apples, cinnamon, cardamon and light brown sugar together in a bowl. Scatter to cover the base of an oven-proof 20-22cm-diameter (8-9in) round shallow dish.

In a separate bowl, rub the butter into the flour using your fingertips until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs (it is good to have some pieces varying in size). Stir through the sugar and flaked almonds. Sprinkle the crumble over the apple layer.

Bake for about 30-40 minutes, or until the top is golden, and the apples are bubbling and soft (insert a knife to check softness).

What turns this into a desert is the camels and cacti. Make the biscuits by first whisking together the butter and caster sugar until soft. Then add the flour and stir until combined into a ball of dough. Roll out on to a floured surface. Cut into cacti and cactus shapes. Ideally, use a biscuit cutter, although you can make your own template on card, then cut round this.

Place on to a lined baking tray in the fridge for 20 minutes, then bake for around 10-15 minutes at 180C (160C fan)/350F/gas mark 4.

Whisk together the icing sugar and egg white for the royal icing (you might need a little extra icing sugar/egg white to adjust the consistency). You can dye this different colours using gel food dye, and then place in piping bags and use to decorate the biscuits.

Arrange the biscuits to stand up in the crumble.





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Nigel Slater’s cod with anchovy, capers and thyme recipe
A punchy and adaptable midweek fish treat


The recipe
You will need 2 thick pieces of cod or haddock fillet, each weighing about 250g.

Peel 3 plump cloves of garlic, crush them flat with the side of a heavy knife, then put them into a mortar or small food processor. Dry 25g of anchovy fillets with kitchen paper to remove the excess salt and oil, then crush the garlic and anchovy to a coarse paste with a pestle or a brief pulse of the processor. Blend in 4 tbsp of olive oil then add, without further crushing, 2 tsp of small “Lilliput” capers and the leaves from 6 sprigs of thyme.

Set the oven at 220C/gas mark 6.

Place the fish a little apart in a shallow baking dish, and spread with the caper and garlic paste, rolling the fish over once or twice to coat each side. Bake in the preheated oven for 20 minutes, until the surface of the fish is turning a pale gold. Squeeze the juice of half a lemon over the fish as it comes from the oven. Serve with green beans and perhaps some steamed, floury-fleshed potatoes. Enough for 2.


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She photographed the biggest stars. But it was the Clash she clicked with. Pennie Smith relives their first explosive US tour – and reveals how she took ‘rock’s greatest photo’

Crashed out … Paul Simonon in a Texas scrapyard in 1979. Photograph: Pennie Smith
Pennie Smith was standing less than six feet away when Paul Simonon, bass-player with the Clash, smashed his guitar to pieces on stage at the Palladium in New York. She’d been on the road with the band for two weeks, photographing their first US tour, but she’d always stayed on the other side of the stage, next to lead guitarist Mick Jones.

That night, to mix it up, she switched sides and remembers Simonon suddenly spinning toward her. “He was in a really bad mood,” she says, “and that wasn’t like him.” She took a step back to get a better focus with her 35mm Pentax – and then all hell broke loose. Simonon, seething, raised his Fender Precision like an axe, turned his back to singer Joe Strummer, and brought it crashing down. “It wasn’t a choice to take the shot,” Smith says. “My finger just went off.”


That night, to mix it up, she switched sides and remembers Simonon suddenly spinning toward her. “He was in a really bad mood,” she says, “and that wasn’t like him.” She took a step back to get a better focus with her 35mm Pentax – and then all hell broke loose. Simonon, seething, raised his Fender Precision like an axe, turned his back to singer Joe Strummer, and brought it crashing down. “It wasn’t a choice to take the shot,” Smith says. “My finger just went off.”

The photograph immortalised Simonon’s rage in grainy black and white. It was an emotional response, he later said, to a stiff New York audience that sat all night in their seats and didn’t move. “You can’t really tell it’s Paul,” says Smith. “But I guess that’s the point.”


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Can’t stop putting your hand in the candy dish? Scientists may have found why.


A national team of scientists has identified a circuit in the brain that appears to be associated with psychiatric disorders ranging from overeating to gambling, drug abuse and even Parkinson’s disease.

“We discovered the brain connections that keep impulsivity in check,” said Scott Kanoski, a neuroscientist and associate professor at USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. “The key to this system is a neuropeptide that we’ve been focusing on, melanin-concentrating hormone, in studies on appetite and eating.”

The study was published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications.

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is signaled by brain cells in a portion of the hypothalamus, a cone-shaped area of the brain that sits above the pituitary gland. Research has indicated MCH is linked with appetite for food or drugs, but until now scientists hadn’t fully understood how it affects impulse control.

Can’t wait for donuts

The scientists conducted a series of studies on rats that demonstrated that impulsivity is a separate function from hunger and food motivation.

In one task, a rat could press a lever and receive a treat that Kanoski likened to a “little donut hole” that was high in fats and carbohydrates. The release was timed, however, which meant the rat would have to wait 20 seconds to successfully press the lever and receive another one. The rat would become eager and and would sometimes hit the lever before the time had passed, forcing the clock to reset and having to wait again for the next opportunity for a treat.

In another task, rats had a choice between two levers. One lever would release an immediate single treat. The other would release a batch of five treats — but every 30-45 seconds.

The rats would press the lever for the single treat more frequently than the other lever, even though it would have delivered far more food.

“They don’t just sit there and wait,” Kanoski said. “They worked harder to achieve the same, or even fewer, number of pellets.”


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Lynnette’s Legal
Document
Assistance,
Notary Public,

29 Palms,
Yucca Valley,
Joshua Tree,

760-366-1941.
Address:

61325 # F
Twentynine Palms
Highway,
Joshua Tree,
CA 92252

Open
9 AM
Monday
to
Friday
Hi-Desert Ca.
Assist clients with family law, paternity,
guardianships, adoptions, wills, power of
attorney, deeds, notary, process server,
unlawful detainer, small claims, divorce
& more.
Call 760-366-1941.
Serving:
Yucca Valley, 29 Palms, Joshua Tree,
High Desert,
The Morongo Basin California.






Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food

By: Eva Selhub MD


Think about it. Your brain is always “on.” It takes care of your thoughts and movements, your breathing and heartbeat, your senses — it works hard 24/7, even while you’re asleep. This means your brain requires a constant supply of fuel. That “fuel” comes from the foods you eat — and what’s in that fuel makes all the difference. Put simply, what you eat directly affects the structure and function of your brain and, ultimately, your mood.

Like an expensive car, your brain functions best when it gets only premium fuel. Eating high-quality foods that contain lots of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants nourishes the brain and protects it from oxidative stress — the “waste” (free radicals) produced when the body uses oxygen, which can damage cells


Unfortunately, just like an expensive car, your brain can be damaged if you ingest anything other than premium fuel. If substances from “low-premium” fuel (such as what you get from processed or refined foods) get to the brain, it has little ability to get rid of them. Diets high in refined sugars, for example, are harmful to the brain. In addition to worsening your body’s regulation of insulin, they also promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Multiple studies have found a correlation between a diet high in refined sugars and impaired brain function — and even a worsening of symptoms of mood disorders, such as depression.

It makes sense. If your brain is deprived of good-quality nutrition, or if free radicals or damaging inflammatory cells are circulating within the brain’s enclosed space, further contributing to brain tissue injury, consequences are to be expected. What’s interesting is that for many years, the medical field did not fully acknowledge the connection between mood and food.


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Social networking is stress free and a profitable marketing platform.
Digital Marketing will maximize your company visibility.
Most shoppers research their next purchase online.
Reach your audience when they are engaged on the internet.

A digital presence creates business awareness.
Social media is an essential piece of your business marketing strategy.

Call 442-256-1457
Serving: Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree, Palm Desert, Palm Springs
& the Universe.



How to treat anxiety naturally


Natural remedies for anxiety and stress
Natural remedies are generally safe to use alongside more conventional medical therapies.

However, alterations to the diet and some natural supplements can change the way antianxiety medications work, so it is essential to consult a doctor before trying these solutions. The doctor may also be able to recommend other natural remedies.


Exercise is a great way to burn off anxious energy, and research tends to support this use.

For example, a 2015 review of 12 randomized controlled trials found that exercise may be a treatment for anxiety. However, the review cautioned that only research of higher quality could determine how effective it is.

Exercise may also help with anxiety caused by stressful circumstances. Results of a 2016 studyTrusted Source, for example, suggest that exercise can benefit people with anxiety related to quitting smoking.


Meditation
Meditation can help to slow racing thoughts, making it easier to manage stress and anxiety. A wide range of meditation styles, including mindfulness and meditation during yoga, may help.

Mindfulness-based meditation is increasingly popular in therapy. A 2010 meta-analytic review suggests that it can be highly effective for people with disorders relating to mood and anxiety


Relaxation exercises
Some people unconsciously tense the muscles and clench the jaw in response to anxiety. Progressive relaxation exercises can help.

Try lying in a comfortable position and slowly constricting and relaxing each muscle group, beginning with the toes and working up to the shoulders and jaw.


Writing
Finding a way to express anxiety can make it feel more manageable.

Some research suggests that journaling and other forms of writing can help people to cope better with anxiety.

A 2016 study, for example, found that creative writing may help children and teens to manage anxiety.


Time management strategies
Some people feel anxious if they have too many commitments at once. These may involve family, work, and health-related activities. Having a plan in place for the next necessary action can help to keep this anxiety at bay.

Effective time management strategies can help people to focus on one task at a time. Book-based planners and online calendars can help, as can resisting the urge to multitask.

Some people find that breaking major projects down into manageable steps can help them to accomplish those tasks with less stress.


Aromatherapy
Smelling soothing plant oils can help to ease stress and anxiety. Certain scents work better for some people than others, so consider experimenting with various options.

Lavender may be especially helpful. A 2012 study tested the effects of aromatherapy with lavender on insomnia in 67 women aged 45–55. Results suggest that the aromatherapy may reduce the heart rate in the short term and help to ease sleep issues in the long term.


Cannabidiol oil


Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is a derivative of the cannabis, or marijuana, plant.

Unlike other forms of marijuana, CBD oil does not contain tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, which is the substance that creates a “high.”

CBD oil is readily available without a prescription in many alternative healthcare shops. Preliminary research suggests that it has significant potential to reduce anxiety and panic.

In areas where medical marijuana is legal, doctors may also be able to prescribe the oil.


Herbal teas
Many herbal teas promise to help with anxiety and ease sleep.

Some people find the process of making and drinking tea soothing, but some teas may have a more direct effect on the brain that results in reduced anxiety.

Results of a small 2018 trial suggest that chamomile can alter levels of cortisol, a stress hormone.


Herbal supplements
Like herbal teas, many herbal supplements claim to reduce anxiety. However, little scientific evidence supports these claims.

It is vital to work with a doctor who is knowledgeable about herbal supplements and their potential interactions with other drugs.


Time with animals
Pets offer companionship, love, and support. Research published in 2018 confirmed that pets can be beneficial to people with a variety of mental health issues, including anxiety.

While many people prefer cats, dogs, and other small mammals, people with allergies will be pleased to learn that the pet does have to be furry to provide support.

A 2015 studyTrusted Source found that caring for crickets could improve psychological health in older people.

Spending time with animals can also reduce anxiety and stress associated with trauma. Results of a 2015 systematic reviewTrusted Source suggest that grooming and spending time with horses can alleviate some of these effects.


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Limiting mealtimes may increase your motivation for exercise


Limiting access to food in mice increases levels of the hormone, ghrelin, which may also increase motivation to exercise, according to a study published in the Journal of Endocrinology. The study suggests that a surge in levels of appetite-promoting hormone, ghrelin, after a period of fasting prompted mice to initiate voluntary exercise. These novel findings indicate that better diet control, for example limiting food intake to mealtimes or fasting intermittently, could help overweight people maintain a more effective exercise routine, lose weight and avoid debilitating complications such as diabetes and heart disease


Obesity is a costly and growing, global health epidemic that needs more effective intervention strategies to avoid serious complications including heart disease and diabetes. Food restriction and regular exercise are the two main cost-effective strategies to prevent and treat obesity; however the condition is often associated with a sedentary lifestyle and bad eating habits, such as snacking and binge eating. Consequently, adhering to a regular exercise regime can be difficult due to an inability to exercise for a prolonged period or a lack of motivation. Ghrelin, often referred to as the ‘hunger hormone’, stimulates appetite through actions on the brain reward circuitry that increase motivation to eat. It has also been reported to be essential for endurance exercise by increasing metabolism to meet the energy demands of prolonged exercise. Although previous studies have suggested a relationship between ghrelin and exercise, it is not known whether ghrelin levels have a direct effect on motivation to exercise.

In this study, Dr Yuji Tajiri and colleagues from Kurume University School of Medicine in Japan, investigated the relationship between exercise and ghrelin levels in mice. Food intake and wheel-running activity were compared in mice given free access to food and those fed only twice a day for a limited time. Although both groups ate a similar amount of food, the restricted mice ran significantly more. Mice genetically altered to have no ghrelin and on the restricted feeding diet ran less than the mice given free access, however, this could be reversed by administering ghrelin. Furthermore, mice given free access to food and given ghrelin also ran significantly more. These findings suggest that ghrelin may play an important role in the motivation for both feeding and exercise, in response to restricted eating plans.

Dr Tajiri comments, “Our findings suggest that hunger, which promotes ghrelin production, may also be involved in increasing motivation for voluntary exercise, when feeding is limited. Therefore, maintaining a healthy eating routine, with regular mealtimes or fasting, could also encourage motivation for exercise in overweight people.”

However, Dr Tajiri cautions. “These findings and previous reports are based on animal studies; so much more work is needed to confirm that this ghrelin response is also present in people. If it can be established in clinical practice, it not only opens up new cost-effective diet and exercise strategies but may also indicate a new therapeutic application for ghrelin-mimicking drugs.”


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Only-children more likely to be obese than children with siblings.


Families with multiple children tend to make more healthy eating decisions than families with a single child.

A new study in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, published by Elsevier, found that only-children, who researchers refer to as “singletons,” had less healthy family eating practices, beverage choices, and total Healthy Eating Index 2010 score, coming in lower on three out of the 12 areas measured. They also had significantly lower total scores across weekdays, weekends, and on average, indicating there are both individual and collective differences in eating patterns between the groups.

“Nutrition professionals must consider the influence of family and siblings to provide appropriate and tailored nutrition education for families of young children,” said lead author Chelsea L. Kracht, PhD. Dr. Kracht completed the research during her PhD program alongside Dr. Susan Sisson at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. “Efforts to help all children and families establish healthy eating habits and practices must be encouraged.”

Data was self-reported in daily food logs kept by mothers over the course of three days — two weekdays and one weekend day. Teachers kept logs by proxy for any food children ate while at school. Mothers also completed the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity questionnaire to evaluate typical family eating behaviors like food and beverage choice.


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Avocados may help manage obesity, prevent diabetes.


Your guacamole may hold the key to managing obesity and helping delay or prevent diabetes, according to a new study by a University of Guelph research team.

For the first time, researchers led by Prof. Paul Spagnuolo have shown how a compound found only in avocados can inhibit cellular processes that normally lead to diabetes. In safety testing in humans, the team also found that the substance was absorbed into the blood with no adverse effects in the kidney, liver or muscle.

The study was recently published in the journal Molecular Nutrition and Food Research.

About one in four Canadians is obese, a chronic condition that is a leading cause of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance in diabetic patients means their bodies are unable to properly remove glucose from the blood.

Those complications can arise when mitochondria, or the energy powerhouses in the body’s cells, are unable to burn fatty acids completely.

Normally, fatty acid oxidation allows the body to burn fats. Obesity or diabetes hinders that process, leading to incomplete oxidation.

The U of G researchers discovered that avocatin B (AvoB), a fat molecule found only in avocados, counters incomplete oxidation in skeletal muscle and the pancreas to reduce insulin resistance.

In their study, the team fed mice high-fat diets for eight weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. For the next five weeks, they added AvoB to the high-fat diets of half of the mice.

The treated mice weighed significantly less than those in the control group, showing slower weight gain. More important, said Spagnuolo, the treated mice showed greater insulin sensitivity, meaning that their bodies were able to absorb and burn blood glucose and improve their response to insulin.

In a human clinical study, AvoB given as a dietary supplement to participants eating a typical western diet was absorbed safely into their blood without affecting the kidney, liver or skeletal muscle. The team also saw reductions in weight in human subjects, although Spagnuolo said the result was not statistically significant.

Having demonstrated its safety in humans, they plan to conduct clinical trials to test AvoB’s efficacy in treating metabolic ailments in people.

Spagnuolo said the safety trial helped the team to determine just how much AvoB to include in the supplement formulation.

Having received Health Canada approval for the compound as a human supplement, he will begin selling it in powder and pill forms as soon as 2020 through SP Nutraceuticals Inc., a Burlington, Ont.-based natural health products company.

He said eating avocados alone would likely be ineffective, as the amount of natural avocatin B varies widely in the fruit and we still do not fully understand exactly how it is digested and absorbed when we consume a whole avocado.

Although avocados have been touted as a weight-loss food, Spagnuolo said more study is needed. He said a healthy diet and exercise are recommended to prevent metabolic disorders leading to obesity or diabetes.

PhD student Nawaz Ahmed, lead author of the paper, said, “We advocate healthy eating and exercise as solutions to the problem, but that’s difficult for some people. We’ve known this for decades, and obesity and diabetes are still a significant health problem.”

In earlier work funded by the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Spagnuolo has studied the potential use of avocatin B for treating acute myeloid leukemia.



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Red Meat and health:

The new analyses are among the largest such evaluations ever attempted and may influence future dietary recommendations. In many ways, they raise uncomfortable questions about dietary advice and nutritional research, and what sort of standards these studies should be held to.

Already they have been met with fierce criticism by public health researchers. The American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and other groups have savaged the findings and the journal that published them.



Public health officials for years have urged Americans to limit consumption of red meat and processed meats because of concerns that these foods are linked to heart disease, cancer and other ills.

But on Monday, in a remarkable turnabout, an international collaboration of researchers produced a series of analyses concluding that the advice, a bedrock of almost all dietary guidelines, is not backed by good scientific evidence.

If there are health benefits from eating less beef and pork, they are small, the researchers concluded. Indeed, the advantages are so faint that they can be discerned only when looking at large populations, the scientists said, and are not sufficient to tell individuals to change their meat-eating habits.

“The certainty of evidence for these risk reductions was low to very low,” said Bradley Johnston, an epidemiologist at Dalhousie University in Canada and leader of the group publishing the new research in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The new analyses are among the largest such evaluations ever attempted and may influence future dietary recommendations. In many ways, they raise uncomfortable questions about dietary advice and nutritional research, and what sort of standards these studies should be held to.

Already they have been met with fierce criticism by public health researchers. The American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and other groups have savaged the findings and the journal that published them.


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Searching for the Witches’ Tower

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Archaeologists hunt for evidence of a
17th-century English family accused of witchcraft.

By MARLEY BROWN


In the fields belonging to Malkin Tower Farm, outside the village of Blacko, in Lancashire’s borough of Pendle, stands a solitary tree where small charms, fruit, and even the odd dream catcher are known to appear. These offerings are left behind by amblers on countryside strolls who are aware of the farm’s association with the notorious Pendle witch trials. In 1612, nearly a dozen people from this scenic region of hilly pastureland were accused of witchcraft, convicted, and hanged in the nearby city of Lancaster. Though they took place more than 400 years ago—nearly a century before the better-known witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts—the trials continue to captivate an eclectic mix of scholars, tourists, and neo-pagans. Researchers now conducting excavations at Malkin Tower Farm are hoping to find archaeological evidence of the witches themselves. The task is a daunting one, since material remains of magical practice are often ephemeral and difficult to distinguish from everyday objects. It also requires an understanding of the Lancashire in which the condemned lived, which was beset by religious and social upheaval, as well as substantial changes in traditional modes of rural life.

The team, led by archaeologist Charles Orser of Ontario’s Western University, chose to investigate Malkin Tower Farm because it shares the name of a property where the family most closely associated with the trials, the Devices, are known to have lived. The location Orser selected is only one of the possible locations for their home. No standing buildings from the seventeenth century—and no tower—survive at the site, and the exact location of the Device family home was never recorded. But in this part of the world, where farms are handed down over generations, place-names persist. “The names of individual fields, in particular, can be very ancient in this area,” says Malkin Tower Farm owner Andrew Turner, who, with his wife Rachel, operates holiday accommodations at the property. “I wouldn’t be surprised if the name ‘Malkin’ is actually quite a bit older than the 1612 trials.”

The farm’s current cottages, which sit on the lower slopes of a hill and look out over a vista of pastures, stone walls, and small lakes, date to the eighteenth century. Orser chose to investigate a field directly behind them, hoping to find evidence of earlier buildings. A 2018 field season based on geophysical surveys didn’t turn up much, but the team has now encountered what Orser says are the remnants of a demolished residence. “Clearly where we’re excavating now is a tumbled house, there’s no question about it,” he says. “And I can imagine that the local authorities would have wanted to demolish a house that they believed was associated with evil.”


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The 12 Best Foods to Eat in the Morning.

Written by: Healthline’s Nutrition Team

Written by Franziska Spritzler,

Click here for the article: 12 best foods for the morning


The 10 Worst Foods to Eat in the Morning

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Russia Doctor Suggests Yeti Could Have Killed the Dyatlov Pass Hikers
One of the more fantastic theories for what may have caused the infamous Dyatlov Pass incident is getting another look thanks to a Russian doctor who says that a Yeti could have caused the tragic event.

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Car News


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So what is the best time of year to buy a car? The answer is surprisingly simple as long as you understand car salespeople.

The best time of year to buy a car (aka the number one thing salespeople don’t want to tell you)
For starters, the absolute best month is December.

To understand why December is the absolute best time to buy a car, you need to first understand the process and mentality of the humble car salesmen.

Like any other salespeople, they have quotas. A LOT of quotas. They often come in the shape of monthly, quarterly, and yearly goals for the number of cars they have to hit.

This means that your car purchase could determine the difference between their dealership hitting their sales goal and the salesperson receiving a nice annual bonus or…well, not doing those things.

That’s why December (more specifically, the last week of the month) is the best time of year to buy a car. To take it a step further, you should see if you can negotiate a car deal on December 31st, New Year’s Eve.

According to TrueCar, you can actually end up saving up to 8.3% off the price of a new car if you visit the dealership on New Year’s Eve instead of any other day. This is because this is the last day a dealer has in order to make both their quarterly AND yearly goals. As such, they have a fat bonus on the line so they want to get the cars out the door as soon as possible.

Let’s say you were looking at a nice used car going for about $20,000. If you went in on New Year’s Eve, you stand to slash $1,660 just because you went in on that day alone. Imagine what you could earn if you compounded it with great negotiation tactics.


What if I can’t wait for December to buy a car?





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When are the sun’s rays the strongest?
If you expose your skin between the hours of 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., when the sun’s UV rays are at their strongest, you are more likely to burn. Use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing to safeguard your skin from the sun’s harmful rays.

Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.

The sun’s most dangerous burning rays are Ultra Violet B. These are called UVB for short. Think “B for burning.” UVB rays are strongest between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. Make every effort to minimize your time outdoors during these hours. And remember, the closer you live to the equator, the stronger the sun’s rays for more hours in the day, since there is more daylight time in these areas. The sun is also stronger at higher altitudes. In addition, snow, sand, and water reflect the sun’s rays and greatly increase their intensity. If you ski or if you go to the beach, do everything you reasonably can to shield and protect yourself from the sun’s rays.

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Skin Cancer
Dr. Bligard says the worst consequence of long-term exposure to the sun is the development of skin cancer. Because the sun damage to the skin develops over years, the older you are, the greater the risk of developing skin cancer. After years of exposure to the sunlight, providers look for three common types of skin cancer (in order of how often they occur): basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)
This type of skin cancer almost always occurs on sun-damaged skin and is usually pink, shiny and raised. Because the skin becomes very soft, it may be easily injured and so may appear as a scab that keeps returning in the same spot. Dr. Bligard identifies that basal cell carcinoma is especially common in the beard area of men where they use a razor and take the top off the cancer. Although BCC doesn’t generally spread, it does get bigger and deeper over time and can become a problem if ignored.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
This skin cancer is also caused by exposure to the sun, but can also occur in burn scars (from either heat or radiation treatment) or from chronic ulcers of the skin. In a small number of cases, SCC can spread to the lymph nodes and (rarely) to other organs. Dr. Bligard says these can vary in severity and may require special surgical treatments, such as Mohs Surgery, for removal, if they are large or in difficult-to-treat areas.

Malignant Melanoma
Melanoma is the least common of these skin cancers, but it is increasing every year, especially in young women between the ages of 18 and 29 because of the high rate of tanning bed use in this population. Melanoma is very dangerous and can occur any place where there are pigment-producing cells, include the entire skin (it does not have to be in direct sun-exposed areas, but sun exposure increases the risk), moles, birthmarks and the eye. It can spread to lymph nodes and beyond to other organs, including the brain, lungs and liver. Melanoma is much more common in families with a history of abnormal moles or malignant melanoma. Those who have had melanoma have a significant risk of developing other melanomas, so Dr. Bligard recommends regular skin checks.

Dr. Bligard says it is very important that malignant melanoma be diagnosed early, as the thinner the tumor is, the less likely it is to spread. Although there is a lot of research into treatment of melanoma, the best treatment is surgical removal of the tumor and any involved lymph nodes before it has spread.

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How does the sun cause skin cancer?
Isobel Bandurek
20 June 2019 | Cancer prevention, Cancer research

sobel Bandurek, our Research Interpretation Manager, takes a look at our latest report on skin cancer.

Today we published our skin cancer report, which collates the findings on diet, nutrition, physical activity and the risk of skin cancer. There is strong evidence that being taller increases the risk of melanoma (a type of skin cancer) and that drinking water contaminated with arsenic increases the risk of skin cancer (melanoma and non-melanoma). But surely radiation from the sun is the most important risk factor for skin cancer?


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Purified vs Distilled vs Regular Water: What’s the Difference?
Optimal water intake is essential for your health.

Every cell in your body needs water to function properly, which is why you must continuously hydrate throughout the day.

Most people know how important water intake is, but some are confused over the best type of water to drink.

This article investigates the differences between purified, distilled and regular water to find out which one is the best choice for hydration.

What Is Purified Water?
Purified water is water that has been filtered or processed to remove impurities like chemicals and other contaminants.

It is usually produced using groundwater or tap water.

Through purification, many types of impurities are removed, including (1Trusted Source):

Bacteria
Algae
Fungi
Parasites
Metals like copper and lead
Chemical pollutants
Several methods are used to purify water commercially and in the home.

In most Western countries, public drinking water is purified to make water safe for human consumption.

However, standards for drinking water around the world vary and are typically based on governmental regulations or international standards.

In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that over 2.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water (2Trusted Source).

In countries that purify public drinking water, various treatment methods are used to make water safe, including (3Trusted Source):

Coagulation and flocculation: Positively charged chemicals are added to water to bind with negatively charged particles so they can be filtered out. This forms larger particles called floc.
Sedimentation: Due to its larger size, floc settles to the bottom of the water supply, separated from the clean water.
Filtration: The clean water on top of the supply then flows through numerous filtration systems made of sand, charcoal and gravel. This removes contaminants like dust, bacteria, chemicals and viruses.
Disinfection: During this step, chemical disinfectants like chlorine are added to the water to kill any remaining bacteria or viruses that may have survived the first few steps.
It’s important to note that water may be treated differently depending on the area and quality of the local water.

SUMMARY:
Purified water is water that has been processed to remove contaminants like dirt and chemicals. In many countries, tap water is purified to make it safe for human consumption.
Health Benefits of Purified Water
While tap water is safe to drink in many areas, it may still contain trace contaminants.

For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets legal limits that are considered safe for consumers for over 90 contaminants in drinking water (4).

However, the Safe Water Drinking Act gives individual states the ability to regulate their own drinking water standards, as long as they meet the EPA’s minimum requirements for contaminants (5).

This means that some states have more stringent drinking water regulations than others.

Although measures are taken to ensure that public drinking water is safe for consumption, it can contain trace amounts of contaminants that could negatively impact health.

For instance, the heavy metals lead and copper are extremely toxic to health. They can cause stomach distress and lead to brain damage when ingested over time (6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).

These heavy metals have been known to leach into drinking water, even in countries where public water sources are closely regulated (8Trusted Source).

By using in-home water filters or drinking purified bottled water, drinking water undergoes another level of purification that can remove metals, chemicals and other contaminants, depending on the type of purification system used.

Water purification systems like charcoal filters remove chlorine, a common chemical added to the public water supply as a disinfectant.

Several studies have linked chlorinated water to an increased risk of certain cancers, including colorectal cancer (9Trusted Source, 10Trusted Source).

Another benefit of water purification is that it removes unpleasant tastes associated with chemical treatments, organic matter or metal plumbing, leaving you with fresh, pure-tasting drinking water.

SUMMARY:
Water purification removes contaminants that may remain in drinking water and improves water quality and taste.

Potential Downfalls of Purified Water
While purified water has many health benefits, it also has some potential drawbacks.

For example, fluoride is a mineral that is added to public drinking water supplies in some countries to improve dental health and reduce dental decay (11Trusted Source).

Although this practice has led to decreased tooth decay in children, especially in at-risk areas, some argue that fluoridated water is not worth the potential health risks associated with its use.

Excessive fluoride levels can be toxic to both brain and nerve cells, and long-term exposure to high levels of fluoride has been linked to learning, memory and cognitive deficits (12Trusted Source).

However, experts argue that the level of fluoride found in drinking water is safe and beneficial in reducing tooth decay, especially in children who are only exposed to fluoride through drinking water (13Trusted Source).

Research on the safety and efficacy of fluoridated water is ongoing, but those who drink purified water should be aware that some purification systems remove fluoride from drinking water.

Some other disadvantages of purified water include:

Upkeep: Water purification systems must be maintained regularly. If not properly maintained, contaminants can build up in old filters and leach into your drinking water.
May not remove some contaminants: Although water purification systems remove many contaminants, certain pesticides and chemicals may remain in purified water depending on the type of purification used.
Cost: Both installing an in-home water purification system and buying purified bottled water can be expensive, with some systems costing hundreds of dollars.
Waste: Buying purified water in plastic bottles leads to a large amount of waste, as does disposing of used filters from in-home purification systems.
SUMMARY:
Water purification may not remove all contaminants from drinking water, and certain purification systems can be costly and involve upkeep. Certain purification methods remove fluoride, a mineral added to drinking water to improve dental health.
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Distilled Water Is a Type of Purified Water
Distilled water has gone through the process of distillation to remove impurities.

Distillation involves boiling water and collecting the steam, which returns to water upon cooling.

This process is very effective at removing contaminants like bacteria, viruses, protozoa like giardia and chemicals like lead and sulfate (14).

Due to the fact that distilled water is exceptionally pure, it is commonly used in medical facilities and laboratories.

Though drinking distilled water is not as common as drinking other types of purified water, some people choose to drink it because it is free of contaminants.

Benefits of Distilled Water
Water distillation is an effective way to remove contaminants from drinking water.

Levels of pesticides and other chemicals in public water sources like tap water will depend on your geographic location and the agencies that regulate drinking water safety in your country.

Distilled water is essentially free of contaminants like pesticides and bacteria, which could be especially helpful to those with weakened immune systems.

For example, those with HIV/AIDS and certain cancers are at an increased risk of becoming sick from impurities in food and water and may benefit from drinking distilled water (15Trusted Source).

What’s more, like some other purification methods, distilled water effectively removes chlorine from drinking water, which can improve the taste of water while decreasing your exposure to chlorine.

Potential Risks of Distilled Water
While distilled water is the purest type of water, it’s not necessarily healthiest.

The distillation process is very effective at removing potentially harmful contaminants, but it also removes the natural minerals and electrolytes found in water.

Along with unwanted impurities, beneficial minerals like calcium and magnesium are also left behind as the steam rises during the distillation process.

In fact, distillation typically removes around 99.9% of all minerals found in tap water (16).

Though water is not typically thought of as a source of minerals, any factor that leads to a decreased intake of essential micronutrients could negatively impact your health.

For example, drinking water that’s low in calcium and magnesium has been associated with an increased risk of fracture, preterm birth and heart disease (17Trusted Source, 18Trusted Source).

However, it’s important to note that tap water is not a major source of mineral intake for most people, and drinking distilled water should be relatively safe as long as a well-balanced diet is followed.

Like other methods of purification, distillation removes fluoride from drinking water, which may put those who choose to drink distilled water at an increased risk of cavities.

This makes it important for those who drink distilled water to maintain proper dental hygiene.

SUMMARY:
Distilled water is a type of purified water that is essentially free from contaminants. The distillation process removes fluoride and natural minerals found in drinking water.
Should You Choose Purified Water Over Regular Water?
In most cases, public drinking water sources like tap water are safe due to the strict contaminant limits set by regulatory agencies.

However, drinking water can become contaminated from natural sources or human activity, affecting water quality (19).

For this reason, it may be a good idea to invest in an in-home water purification system, especially those who are immunocompromised and more susceptible to becoming ill from contaminated water.

In countries where water contamination is an issue, especially in developing countries with lack of proper sanitation, choosing bottled or purified water is always the safest option.

Many types of purification systems are available, including charcoal and UV filters, which remove impurities that may survive the initial, large-scale purification process that most tap water goes through.

That being said, in countries where public drinking water is regulated for quality and safety, drinking tap water is relatively safe.

If you question the quality of your tap water, you can test the water by purchasing a home test kit or contacting a water testing agency in your area.

SUMMARY:
Though consuming tap water is safe in countries where drinking water is regulated, water purification may be necessary in areas where water contamination is an issue.
How to Purify Your Drinking Water
Most public sources of drinking water are regulated for safety, but some people choose to use home water purifiers to further improve water quality.

Household water treatment units can improve the taste or odor of tap water and remove specific contaminants.

Point-of-use (POU) treatment systems purify only the water that is used for consumption (drinking and cooking). Point-of-entry (PUE) treatment systems typically treat all of the water entering a home (20).

POU systems are less expensive and therefore more commonly used in households.

These filtration systems attach to the faucet or sit under the sink and also come in free-standing water pitchers with built-in filters like the popular Brita water filter.

Some refrigerators also come with built-in water purification systems.

Most in-home water filtration systems use the following purification techniques (21Trusted Source):

Filtration: Filtration systems trap unwanted impurities in the surface or pores of an absorbent medium. Charcoal filters fall into this category.
Reverse osmosis: These systems use a semipermeable membrane that removes impurities.
UV light: UV light filtration systems use ultraviolet light to disinfect water by killing potentially harmful bacteria and viruses.
Depending on the type and model, prices can range from $20 to hundreds of dollars.

No matter what type of filter you choose, be sure to look for brands with certifications from regulatory agencies like the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and NSF International.

These agencies certify that home water purification systems meet or exceed national drinking water standards (22).

Home water purification systems must be maintained properly. As a result, it’s important to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for upkeep, including filter replacement, to ensure that your water is being properly purified.

SUMMARY:
There are many ways to purify your drinking water, including charcoal filters, UV light filtration systems and reverse osmosis systems.
The Bottom Line
Access to clean drinking water is vital to health.

While most sources of public drinking water are closely regulated and safe to drink, many prefer to drink purified water.

Purified water is relatively safe and may reduce exposure to certain contaminants that can be found in tap water.

Remember that water quality can vary depending on where you live. This should be the determining factor when choosing to drink purified water or tap water.

HEALTHLINE CHALLENGES
Curious about mindful eating? We can give you a taste.
Are you ready to give mindful eating a shot? Healthline can help you try it. Take the Mindful Eating Challenge and learn how to create lasting, healthy habits around food.

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A lifetime of drinking California water could raise cancer risk, study finds …

May 1, 2019 – This article is more than 3 months old … Drinking California tap water over the course of a lifetime could increase the risk of cancer, according to a study published on Tuesday … But we need your ongoing support to keep working as we do. … 2019 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies.

But the study found that a majority of the cancer risk was due to the cumulative effect of these legally allowed amounts. “A large majority of the cancer risk, about 85% of it, is due to the combination of contaminants that are present at legal limits,” explained Tasha Stoiber, an Environmental Working Group senior scientist and the lead author of the report.

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Drinking-Water Quality: What You Need to Know

Most of us don’t think about the water we drink. We turn on a tap, fill a glass, and drink. But how much water do you really need to drink every day? Is the water you’re drinking safe or would bottled water be safer? What can you do if your tap water suddenly became contaminated? Read on to find out how much you know about the drinking water in your own home.

How Much Water Do You Need?
Your body weight is more than 50% water. Without water, you couldn’t maintain a normal body temperature, lubricate your joints, or get rid of waste through urination, sweat, and bowel movements.

Not getting enough water can lead to dehydration, which can cause muscle weakness and cramping, a lack of coordination, and an increased risk of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. In fact, water is so important that a person couldn’t last more than five days without it.

So how much water do you need? Enough to replace what you lose daily through urination, sweating, even exhaling. And your need for water increases:

You often hear that you need to drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water each day. The Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board recommend that women drink more than 11 8-ounce glasses (91 ounces) of water daily, and men drink more than 15 glasses of water(125 ounces) per day.

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The Crisis Lurking in Californians’ Taps: How 1,000 Water Systems May Be at Risk
The troubled districts, which operate in mostly poor areas on thin budgets, receive little oversight and face a host of problems.

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Would You Drink Water Out of a Can? Pepsi Wants to Find Out
Consumers have already adjusted to, or even welcomed, cans for seltzer, craft beer and even wine. Will they feel the same way about still water?

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How to make the perfect no-churn ice-cream – recipe
No ice-cream maker, no returning to the freezer tub to churn every half hour. You might not get Mr Whippy, but you’ll get all the flavour and none of the hassle


love ice-cream more than almost anything else in the world – but I’ll be honest, I don’t love making it. All that faffing about with egg custards, the swearing and bashed elbows as you dig around for the dusty ice-cream maker at the back of the shed, if you even own such a thing in the first place – all things considered, it’s a lot easier to pop to the shops and shell out for some professional stuff.

But, however good the selection in your local supermarket, you’ll be hard pushed to find any flavour more interesting than 25 variations on chocolate, which is where no churn ice-cream comes in. Yes, it’s inevitably a slight compromise, because churning whips air into the mixture, giving the finished product a certain lightness, but do it right, and the results can be surprisingly good, and certainly worth the very minimal effort involved. And once you’ve mastered it, a world of flavour is your oyster. (NB: that isn’t a suggestion; I had oyster ice-cream once on the Ile de Ré and it was disgusting).

The eggs
Eggs are divisive in ice-cream generally; neither kulfi nor Philadelphia-style ice-cream require them, and gelato tends to contain less than the kind of ice-cream traditionally made in this country. They’re not often used in no-churn ice-cream, probably because they suggest a more complex method than most people are looking for here, but Mary Berry, pastry chef Stella Parks and New York Times columnist Melissa Clark all stick them in anyway, albeit in very different forms.


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Food
Nigel Slater’s grilled mackerel and smoked mackerel pâté recipes
Fresh mackerel catches the flavour of the sea in summer

he fishmonger is laying out his produce on the ice. The counter is his stage, arranged fresh each morning, just as everyone is going to work in the early light. The catch is his cast, we are his audience, watching the sparkling ice with its ever-changing characters. A blue net of mussels; a tumbling pile of prawns in their shells; a rust-red lobe of smoked cod’s roe, and always a fierce fish head, its razor-sharp teeth barred, there to terrorise the kids.

Sometimes there will be whole squid, their tentacles tangled as if to comfort one another, or a cod sliced into soup-friendly pieces. There is often a crate of fat lemons and a box of spiky fingers of samphire. On a good day, there will be mackerel. The most sustainable are those labelled “line-caught”. Set in a soldierly row, each one taut and firm. Fresh mackerel for the grill, smoked for a pâté. The first shimmering silver and blue, the second in shades of gold, black and amber. Mackerel has always been a favourite fish of mine, long before I learned to pick out hake to cook in a shallow dish with a green sauce or halibut to grill as I might a sirloin of beef, its pearlescent flesh holding a shallow pool of almost melted butter and lemon.


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Nigel Slater’s puffed rice with redcurrants and cucumber recipe
A substantial dish that could serve as a main course as well as a side salad



The recipe

Peel 200g of cucumber, halve lengthways and scoop out the seeds with a teaspoon. Cut the flesh into small dice and place in a large mixing bowl.

In a dry, shallow pan, toast 1 tsp of cumin seeds and 1½ tsp of coriander seeds until fragrant, then add 1 tsp of garam masala. Tip the spice mix into a mortar and crush to a fine powder.

Remove 100g of redcurrants from their stalks and drop into a bowl. Pull 3 tbsp of parsley leaves from their stalks and mix with the currants. Squeeze in the juice of a lime and add 2 tbsp of olive oil then mix together.

Put 200ml of yogurt into a small bowl. Trim a punnet of cress and add to the yogurt, then chop and stir in 3 spring onions and 20 small mint leaves.

Return the ground spices to the pan, add 1 tbsp of groundnut or vegetable oil, then add 25g of puffed rice. Place over a moderate heat and cook until the rice is lightly toasted and coated in the spices. Toss everything together then serve with the mint yogurt. Stir together as you serve. Serves 2-3.

The trick
You need unsweetened puffed rice for this, available from wholefoods shops. You can mix together the cucumber and currants and toss the puffed rice and spices, but leave them to the last minute to mix with the yogurt to avoid soggy salad.

The twist
The rice is quite filling and this would make a fine main salad for a summer lunch. Alternatively, serve it as a side salad for grilled chicken or salmon, or as one of series of small salads. I like it especially scattered over the top of a dish of chickpea hummus and to eat with warm flatbread. You can’t beat a lunch of triple carbs.

Email Nigel at nigel.slater@observer.co.uk or follow him on Twitter@NigelSlater


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Happy Days, Restful Nights: Optimistic People Are Better Sleepers, Study Finds


Falling asleep can feel like an impossible task sometimes. While some people fall asleep easier than others, everyone experiences the occasional sleepless night. Well, according to a new long-term study, the key to a better night’s sleep may just be looking on the bright side of life.

Researchers from the University of Illinois say that the more optimistic a person is, the more likely they are to enjoy longer, more restful sleep patterns.

“Results from this study revealed significant associations between optimism and various characteristics of self-reported sleep after adjusting for a wide array of variables, including socio-demographic characteristics, health conditions and depressive symptoms,” explains study leader Rosalba Hernandez in a release.

More than 3,500 people between the ages of 32-51 took part in the study, and each person’s level of optimism was measured using a survey. The surveys asked participants how much they agreed with various positive and negative statements such as, “I’m always optimistic about my future,” or, “I hardly expect things to go my way.”

Participants also self-reported on their sleep patterns and quality twice over the course of five years, and answered questions on any bouts of insomnia, difficulty falling asleep, and the average number of hours they slept per night. A smaller subset of participants also wore sleep monitors for two nights that recorded data on time spent sleeping, sleep quality, and restlessness while asleep.

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The study found that for each data point increase in a participant’s optimism score, their chances of reporting very good sleep quality increased by 78%. Additionally, individuals with higher optimism levels were much more likely to report regularly getting enough sleep — anywhere from six to nine hours per night. Positive individuals were also 74% more likely to have no insomnia issues or daytime sleepiness.

Lack of sleep is a real issue in the United States, with an estimated one in three adults failing to regularly get an adequate amount of sleep each night. While simply staying positive may seem like a overly simple solution to sleep problems, the study’s authors say that optimism can be a powerful psychological asset.

“The lack of healthy sleep is a public health concern, as poor sleep quality is associated with multiple health problems, including higher risks of obesity, hypertension and all-cause mortality,” Hernandez says. “Dispositional optimism – the belief that positive things will occur in the future – has emerged as a psychological asset of particular salience for disease-free survival and superior health.”

Hernandez and her team aren’t exactly sure why a positive mindset leads to better sleep, but they hypothesize that positivity likely alleviates the effects of stress on the psyche and promotes a more restful mental state.

The study is published in the scientific journal Behavioral Medicine.


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Eating mostly plant-based foods and fewer animal-based foods may be linked to better heart health and a lower risk of dying from a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular disease according to new research published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, the Open Access Journal of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

“While you don’t have to give up foods derived from animals completely, our study does suggest that eating a larger proportion of plant-based foods and a smaller proportion of animal-based foods may help reduce your risk of having a heart attack, stroke or other type of cardiovascular disease,” said lead researcher, Casey M. Rebholz, Ph.D., assistant professor of epidemiology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Researchers reviewed a database of food intake information from more than 10,000 middle-aged U.S. adults who were monitored from 1987 through 2016 and did not have cardiovascular disease at the start of the study. They then categorized the participants’ eating patterns by the proportion of plant-based foods they ate versus animal-based foods.


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How Dogs Think


Kluger is Editor at Large for TIME.
This is excerpted from TIME How Dogs Think: Inside the Canine Mind, now available at retailers and on Amazon.

You speak dog better than you think you do. You may not be fluent; that would require actually being a dog. But if you went to live in a dogs-only world, you’d be pretty good at understanding what they’re saying. You can tell a nervous yip from a menacing growl, a bark that says hello from a bark that says get lost. You can read the body language that says happy, that says sad, that says tired, that says scared, that says Please, please, please play with me right now!

Think that’s not a big deal? Then answer this: What does a happy bird look like? A sad lion? You don’t know, but dog talk you get. And as with your first human language, you didn’t even have to try to learn it. You grew up in a world in which dogs are everywhere and simply came to understand them.

The relationship began—well, nobody knows exactly when it began. The earliest remains of humans and dogs interred together date to 14,000 years ago, but there are some unconfirmed finds that are said to be more than twice as old. The larger point is the meaning of the discoveries: we lived with dogs and then chose to be buried with them. Imagine that.

Why Dogs and Humans Love Each Other More Than Anyone Else



Food & Health

Is coffee good for you or not? BY AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION NEWS

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About Coffee and health

Just a couple of calories a cup, good old black coffee packs quite a punch. It wakes you up, boosts your metabolic rate and decreases the risk of some diseases.

Not that habitual coffee drinkers need convincing, but evidence of its health benefits stacks up quickly:

It gives you energy and may help you lose weight and sharpen your mental focus, thanks to the magic of caffeine. Studies have shown that caffeine may improve your mood, help your brain work better and improve performance during exercise.
A regular java habit is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson’s disease. Additionally, in one study, caffeine was linked to a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
Coffee is an excellent source of antioxidants, which may help protect cells from damage.
Higher consumption of coffee — caffeinated and decaf alike — was associated with a lower risk of total mortality, including deaths attributed to heart disease, nervous system diseases and suicide.
More specifically, habitual coffee drinking has been linked to a lower risk of coronary heart disease in women.

For health-conscious coffee lovers then, the most important question isn’t, “Is it good for you?” but rather, “How do you take it?”

If you dress your coffee up too much with cream and sugar, you risk negating the health benefits.

“We know that sugar has adverse effects,” said Penny Kris-Etherton, a nutrition professor at Penn State University. “Even if you add sugar and don’t exceed your calorie needs, you’re still negating some of the benefits because sugar is a negative food ingredient.”

That warning goes double for even fancier coffee drinks. The federal dietary guidelines say three to five cups of coffee per day can be part of a healthy diet, but that only refers to plain black coffee.

“They’re not talking about these large Frappuccinos that have at least 800 calories a beverage,” Kris-Etherton said. “Very quickly, calories can add up, and weight gain will create negative effects on cardiac risk.”

Despite its benefits, caffeine also can be dangerous if consumed in excess.

“We all know how important sleep is,” Kris-Etherton said. “You don’t want to disrupt normal sleep habits and good sleep because you’ve had too much caffeine, so if you want to include coffee in your diet, be sure to think about timing.”

Anyone who’s had one cup too many knows that heart-fluttering feeling that comes next; for some people, those jitters may be a warning sign.

“Some people are slow metabolizers of caffeine,” Kris- Etherton said. “It’s a genetic predisposition. Some people can experience jitters, palpitation, insomnia — sort of like those energy drinks that give you a big boost.”

Caffeine also is addictive, and cutting back too quickly can cause withdrawal symptoms, especially terribly harsh headaches.

It’s worth noting that kids shouldn’t drink coffee, Kris-Etherton said. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that, in general, kids avoid caffeine-containing beverages.

Kris-Etherton also cautioned that brewing methods can affect cardiovascular risk. For example, she said, paper filters remove a compound called cafestol that increases LDL cholesterol (the harmful type), so unfiltered coffee could pose a higher health risk.

“Most people drink filtered coffee,” she said. “But you know, French presses are so popular too, and that may not be good for you, especially if you drink a lot of coffee.”

Still, Kris-Etherton said, research shows that the health benefits of coffee — even decaf — seem to outweigh the risks: “Just pay attention to how you’re feeling after consuming coffee. Get in sync with how your body’s feeling.”

Article Link:
Your health and blueberries

Harvard Men’s Health Watch
Blueberries may help lower blood pressure
In the journals

Eating a cup of blueberries every day may help your blood pressure, suggests a new study. The results, published online Feb. 16, 2019, by The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, found that consuming 200 grams of blueberries (about one cup) daily can improve blood vessel function and decrease systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading).

Researchers recruited 40 healthy men and randomly gave them either a drink containing 200 grams of whole wild blueberries or a control drink (which looked and tasted much the same) every day for a month. The team also monitored the men’s blood pressure as well as the flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery in their upper arms. This measures how the artery widens when blood flow increases and is a marker of reduced cardiovascular disease risk.

Afterward, the researchers found that flow-mediated dilation improved by about 2% within two hours of consuming the blueberry drink and the effect was sustained after one month of daily consumption. Also, systolic blood pressure fell by an average of 5 millimeters of mercury. The effect was similar to that from common blood pressure drugs over the same period.

The experts pointed to the blueberries’ high levels of anthocyanins as the possible reason. Anthocyanins are the phytochemicals that give blueberries their dark color. (While all berries contain anthocyanins, blueberries have one of the highest levels.)

The research also showed that anthocyanins improve the function of endothelial cells in the body. These cells line the inner surface of blood vessels and help with blood flow and blood pressure regulation. The researchers added that blueberries may not only help control high blood pressure, but also may prevent people from developing hypertension.



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